Yam (Discorea spp), a tropical perennial crop cultivated mainly for its edible tubers is a staple food consumed worldwide and provides much economic benefit to the producers. Yam (Discorea species) can also be described as an annual or perennial tuber-bearing and climbing plants belonging to the family of Diocoreceae. In Nigeria, yam is eaten boiled, fried, roasted and pounded. The pounded yam is consumed by almost every tribe in Nigeria. Its consumption cuts across all regions, age groups, economic and social classes. It is served in parties/ ceremonies, hotels restaurants/ eating joints and as family menu. The traditional method of making pounded yam is very laborious and mostly unhygienic.
It requires physical pounding with pestle and mortar by two or more strong men or women, depending on the quantity. Federal Institute of Industrial Research (FIIRO) has developed and perfected a process technology for production of Instant Pounded Yam Flour (IPYF) to remove the drudgery associated with the traditional pounding method. IPYF brings succor to pounded yam lovers as they can now obtain their menu of delight through a process that is less time consuming and of course a more hygienic product with longer shelf life. As a matter of fact, the proliferation of the Instant Pounded Yam Flour companies in Nigeria is as a result of the pioneering R&D and technology transfer activities of the Institute.
There is high demand for Instant Pounded Yam Flour in both domestic and international markets. In the international market, large market exists in Europe and America and other continents most especially with sizeable black people. The potential demand for IPYF is in excess of 500,000 tonnes/annum. RAW MATERIAL Yam tuber is the only raw material required for production of Instant Pounded Yam Flour. Industrial processing and utilisation of yam includes starch, poultry and livestock feed, production of yam flour and instant-pounded yam flour production. Major yam producing states in Nigeria include Adamawa, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Imo, Kaduna, Kwara, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, and Plateau . Table below shows the output of Yam in Nigeria.
MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
The major machinery and equipment for production of IPYF are:
Yam slicer, Dryer (Tunnel or Cabinet is appropriate), Yam par-boiler, Hammer mill with cyclone and Packaging machine.
Production of IPYF includes the following simple unit operations: Yam Selection Weighing Washing Peeling and Slicing Parboiling Drying Milling Packaging The flour is packaged in moisture proof packaging materials.
Production programme for a small to medium scale Instant Pounded Yam Flour production is shown below: Production Days/Annum – 300 Production Volume/Day – 3 Tonnes Production Volume/Annum – 900 Tonnes Projected 5- Year Production Plan
TOTAL INITIAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT
Initial Fixed Capital N16,292,730.00
Initial Working Capital N7,892,130.00
Pre-production Expenses N2,164,010.00
NB: The initial fixed capital includes factory building, machinery and equipment, generator, project vehicle, office furniture and equipment and bore hole.
Return on Investment (Year 1) 85% Return on Equity (Year 1) 174.7% Net Profit to Sales 10.9% Gross Profit to Sales 15.6% Profitability Index 3.5 Breakeven Point (Year 1) 29.8% Payback Period 1.1Years Net Present Value @ 25% N28,655,210.00
AT FIIRO Technology Transfer Training on Instant Pounded Yam Flour Production. Fabrication and Installation of production Machinery and Equipment. Preparation of Bankable Feasibility Report/Business Plan on IPYF production. Quality Control Services Technical Assistance Services (including machinery and equipment installation, commissioning and personnel training on installed plant).